Ứng dụng phi tập trung (dapp) là gì?

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Dapp (Decentralized application) là ứng dụng phi tập trung. Chúng giống như các ứng dụng thông thường và cung cấp các chức năng tương tự, nhưng điểm khác biệt chính là Dapp được chạy trên mạng ngang hàng, chẳng hạn như Blockchain.

Điều đó có nghĩa là không một cá nhân hoặc tổ chức nào có quyền kiểm soát những ứng dụng này.

Dapp có 4 đặc điểm chung để phân biệt như:

  • Là mã nguồn mở: Mã nguồn cơ sở của Dapp luôn có sẵn để được xem xét và đánh giá bởi cộng đồng. Đồng thời, tất cả các thay đổi phải được quyết định bởi sự đồng thuận của đa số người dùng.
  • Phi tập trung: Tất cả các bản ghi về hoạt động của ứng dụng phải được lưu trữ trên một Blockchain công khai và phi tập trung để tránh các rủi ro nghiêm trọng của việc tập trung hóa.
  • Sự khuyến khích: Những người xác thực giao dịch trên Blockchain được khuyến khích tiếp tục nhiệm vụ này bằng cách thưởng cho họ các token.
  • Giao thức sử dụng: Dapp phải công khai một thuật toán mật mã để chứng minh bằng chứng về giá trị. Ví dụ: Bitcoin sử dụng Proof of Work (PoW) hay với Ethereum là Proof of Stake (PoS).

Nếu theo định nghĩa trên, thì Dapp đầu tiên thực chất là Bitcoin. Bitcoin là một giải pháp Blockchain được triển khai để giải quyết các vấn đề xoay quanh việc tập trung hóa và kiểm duyệt bởi bên thứ ba.

Dapps thực sự có nghĩa gì?

Như mọi người đã biết, phân quyền là một khái niệm quan trọng trong ngành công nghiệp tiền điện tử, blockchain cũng như là Dapps. Ở góc độ cơ bản, phân quyền “quyền lực” là “phân chia” đồng đều. Không một cá nhân nào có quyền tuyệt đối và mọi quyết định phải do cộng đồng đưa ra.

Ví dụ: Trong ngành tài chính truyền thống, các ngân hàng chính phủ điều hành hầu hết mọi thứ. Họ phát hành tiền tệ, xử lý mọi giao dịch, cũng có quyền đóng băng, có quyền giải phóng tài khoản,… Về cơ bản, chúng là công cụ để kiểm soát tất cả các loại tiền tệ trên thế giới.

Tất nhiên, tất cả mọi thứ bị giới hạn bởi luật pháp của từng quốc gia khác nhau. Nhưng trong thế giới nền tảng blockchain mọi thứ lại khác. Tất cả hoạt động đều do cộng đồng quyết định. Trên thực tế, cộng đồng sẽ vận hành blockchain thông qua sự tham gia đông đảo các nhóm. Có quyền được bỏ phiếu cung cấp phát triển cho nền tảng, mọi tổ chức, cá nhân đều có quyền tham gia.

Ưu điểm và nhược điểm của Dapp

Ưu điểm

  • Chống kiểm duyệt: Như khái niệm nêu trên, Dapp tồn tại phi tập trung nên rất khó để các chính phủ hoặc cá nhân có thể kiểm soát mạng.
  • Không có thời gian chết: Hệ thống ngang hàng đảm bảo cho các Dapp liên tục hoạt động ngay cả khi các máy tính riêng lẻ hoặc các bộ phận gặp sự cố mạng.
  • Mã nguồn mở: Điều này khuyến khích sự phát triển rộng rãi của hệ sinh thái Dapp. Cho phép các nhà phát triển xây dựng các Dapp tốt hơn với các chức năng hữu ích trong tương lai.

Nhược điểm

  • Có thể bị hack: Việc chạy trên mã nguồn mở hợp đồng thông minh là ưu điểm nhưng cũng là một cơ hội cho hacker tìm kiếm lỗ hổng bảo mật để tấn công. Trên thực tế, đã xảy ra một loạt các vụ hack trên các Dapp phổ biến, chẳng hạn như EOS Dapp mất gần 1 triệu đô la bởi tin tặc chỉ trong năm 2018.
  • Vấn đề về khả năng sử dụng: Rất nhiều Dapp có giao diện người dùng kém và khó sử dụng, tuy nhiên điều này đang được cải thiện dần theo thời gian.
  • Phụ thuộc vào người dùng: Dapp càng có nhiều người dùng thì hoạt động càng hiệu quả hơn. Ngược lại, các ứng dụng phi tập trung sẽ gặp khó khăn nếu số lượng người dùng thấp, khiến chúng hoạt động kém an toàn hơn.

Phân loại và ứng dụng của Dapps vào thực tế

Những ứng dụng của Dapp được chia thành 7 nhóm sau:

  • Sàn giao dịch: Cho phép lưu trữ trao đổi và giao dịch trực tiếp các đồng coin. Trên Ethereum: Gồm các sàn tiêu biểu như IDEX, LocalEthereum, MakerDAO, AirSwap, Melonport, ForkDelta, Bancor, 0x. Trên Binance Smart ChainPancakeswap, burgerswap, swapx.bscex.org, barkeryswap, thug.finance,…
  • Ví: Có loại ví Metamask,…
  • Các ứng dụng dùng để cá cược: Như BIG Game, PLAY GOC, TronVegas, Crazy Dog Live, Pixel Farrm, EOSbet, Hold’em PokerKing, Tronbet.
  • Trò chơi: Gồm có CryptoKitties, Etheroll, Etheremon, Gods Unchained, ETH.TOWN, FunFair, Fomo3D.
  • Tài chính: Bounties Network, Gitcoin, Balanc3, Ethlance.
  • Mạng xã hội: Minds, Numa, Peepeth, Akasha.

Dapps được sử dụng để làm gì?

Bây giờ, chúng ta hãy áp dụng khái niệm “phân quyền” cho các ứng dụng blockchain. Dapps là các ứng dụng mã nguồn mở có thể làm hầu hết mọi thứ mà một ứng dụng thông thường có thể nào làm được. Những hoạt động của người dùng đều sẽ được ghi lại trên blockchain.

Không có giới hạn thực sự đối với chức năng của một Dapps. Chúng có thể là phần mềm định hướng tài chính, ứng dụng cá cược trong trò chơi blockchain, ứng dụng phát video trực tiếp,…

Một điều đáng nói khác là Dapps được kết nối chặt chẽ với một dự án tiền điện tử. Vì hầu hết các hoạt động của Dapps đều yêu cầu một hình thức giao dịch nhỏ diễn ra. Ngoài ra, Dapps có liên quan mật thiết đến các dự án tiền điện tử. Vì hoạt động Dapps yêu cầu một số hình thức giao dịch nhỏ để xảy ra.

Ví dụ: Nếu bạn dùng Dapps được thiết kế cho người sáng tạo để xuất bản nội dung của họ cho người khác xem, bạn sẽ cần trả khoản phí nhỏ. Thông thường, những khoản phí này là một hoặc hai xu, hoặc thậm chí là một phần nhỏ. Tuy nhiên, một thỏa thuận nhỏ như vậy sẽ cho phép người xem truy cập video, văn bản và hơn thế nữa.

Đồng thời, người tạo nội dung có thể kiếm tiền từ nội dung mà họ xuất bản. Điều này sẽ hỗ trợ khả năng sáng tạo nghệ thuật của họ hoặc giúp họ kiếm được thu nhập. Miễn là có đủ mọi người quan tâm đến những gì họ làm.

Một số Dapps sử dụng số tiền đã thu được với một khoản phí, để tài trợ thêm cho sự phát triển của dự án hoặc làm nguyên liệu cho cơ sở mạng lưới và cơ chế đồng thuận hệ thống. Dapps cũng cung cấp cho người dùng khả năng chuyển đổi giá trị, vì lợi ích dự án và chính cộng đồng.

Tương lai của Dapp

Dapp vẫn đang ở trong giai đoạn đầu của sự phát triển. Hiện tại đã có hàng nghìn Dapp khác nhau cung cấp các dịch vụ: trò chơi, sàn giao dịch, tài chính…

Tính đến quý 2 năm 2020, tổng khối lượng giao dịch trên Dapp đã đạt 12 tỷ đô la, tăng 4,5 tỷ đô la so với quý trước. Mặc dù đây là những con số đáng chú ý, tuy nhiên Dapp vẫn còn một chặng đường dài phía trước để tiếp tục phát triển.

Trước khi Dapp thực sự trở nên phổ biến, các nhà phát triển và nền tảng mà họ đang sử dụng vẫn còn rất nhiều thách thức phải giải quyết, chẳng hạn như: Khả năng mở rộng, bảo mật và trải nghiệm người dùng. Chúng ta tin tưởng rằng những vấn đề hiện tại sẽ được khắc phục trong tương lai để đưa các ứng dụng phi tập trung tiến thêm một bước xa hơn.

Kết luận

Dapp là bước tiến lớn trong xu hướng phát triển của Blockchain. Với Smart Contract, người dùng có thể tạo ra các Dapp để phục vụ nhu cầu riêng của mình, hay xa hơn là phục vụ cho cộng đồng, từ đó có thể mang về lợi nhuận lớn. Nhìn chung, số lượng Dapp sẽ ngày càng tăng lên trong Crypto, dựa trên lợi ích của nó.

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